France are among the favourites to win the World Cup this summer and should find easy passage into the knockout rounds after drawing Australia, Denmark and Peru in the group stages.
Giroud's Chelsea team-mate N'Golo Kante has also been included, while Tottenham goalkeeper Hugo Lloris, Manchester City left-back Benjamin Mendy, who has spent the majority of the season out injured with a cruciate ligament rupture, and United midfielder Paul Pogba are the other England-based players in the party.
France's only loss in qualifying came at the Friends Arena in Solna, Sweden in June a year ago, as the Swedes scored a late goal to beat the French 2-1.
You can't count on the French making those kinds of errors too often, however - Les Bleus bounced back from the loss, earning 10 out of a possible 12 points in their last four games to secure qualification.
Arsenal striker Lacazette, who scored 14 goals in 32 Premier League appearances this season, features in a list of 11 players on stand-by should one of the 23 men selected by Deschamps get injured before the coach hands his list to Federation Internationale de Football Association on June 4, 10 days before the start of the tournament in Russia.
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There is no such hope for Payet, however.
However, there was incredible competition for places in France's attacking squad and Deschamps has instead opted for Griezmann - a diminutive speedster - and Giroud - a tall target-man - to lead the line for France in Russian Federation. France has until the June 4 roster deadline to make any substitutions in the event of an injury.
Karim Benzema is the other notable omission, but the Real Madrid man was never in contention to make the trip as he has effectively retired from worldwide football ever since his infamous "sex-tape scandal" broke.
"Players have repaid my faith and I put the group above everything", Deschamps said.
Martial's absence was somewhat less surprising, having fallen out of favour under Manchester United boss Jose Mourinho in recent weeks and picking up a knee injury ahead of the FA Cup final.
Both players were left on the stand-by lift for this summer's tournament in Russian Federation, despite the Arsenal forward scoring eight times in his last 10 appearances after returning from injury.
Antoine Griezmann will lead the attack, fresh from scoring twice for Atletico in the Europa League final.