"Having a patriot of Mike's vast talent, energy, and intellect leading the Department of State will be an incredible asset for our country at this critical time in history", Trump said in a statement.
Throughout the confirmation process, Pompeo's home church prayed for and supported him.
The New York Daily News editorial board, known for being consistently on the left, said that while Pompeo would not be its first choice for secretary of state, he is a "solid-enough selection who deserves Senate consent".
CIA Director Mike Pompeo, President Donald Trump's nominee to be Secretary of State, leaves a meeting with Sen.
The Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted on Monday along party lines to send Pompeo's nomination to the Senate floor with a favorable report.
He is expected to be sworn into office immediately and then to depart within hours of the vote for Europe on his first trip as secretary of state.
Pompeo replaces Rex Tillerson, who was sacked last month by Trump.
A number of liberal Jewish groups, including the American Jewish World Service, the National Council of Jewish Women and J Street, had joined calls on the Senate to reject Pompeo. "Today, he has my congratulations on becoming America's 70th Secretary of State".
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Pompeo has already been deeply engaged in the administration's efforts on North Korea and recently travelled to Pyongyang, where he met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un. Rand Paul (R-Ky.) staved off an embarrassing rejection by the committee. The United States issued several rounds of sanctions against Russian Federation.
That responsibility may fall on the shoulders of Pompeo, the former Central Intelligence Agency director, who is described as a policy hawk.
Pompeo takes the helm ahead of Trump's expected decision about whether to withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal by a May 12 deadline and reimpose sanctions on Tehran. Pompeo will also have to deal with the fallout should Trump decide to pull the USA out of the worldwide agreement curbing Iran's nuclear program.
But during his confirmation hearing, he said he was open to fixing, rather than blowing apart, the pact.
In Brussels, Pompeo will attend a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation foreign ministers summit and meet with the top diplomats from Turkey and Italy.
In Brussels, Pompeo will keep up pressure on NATO's European members, particularly Germany, to boost their defense spending to 2 percent of their gross domestic product by 2024 as they pledged to do at an alliance summit in Wales in 2014, one senior official said.
He is expected to be sworn into office immediately and then to depart within hours of the vote for a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation foreign ministers meeting in Brussels on Friday.